Amphetamine sulphate, Speed, Uppers
Not to be confused with: methamphetamine (Crystal Meth)
Euphoria, physical stimulation, boost of confidence, hyperactivity, increased libido, hallucinations, increased wakefulness.
Insomnia, headaches, tremors, increased perspiration, dilated pupils, dry mouth, grinding of teeth, chest pain, palpitations, paranoia, aggression, increased body temperature, stomach aches, dizziness.
Mechanism of action:
Wide range of action.
Enhancement dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway. Full agonist of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) regulating brain monoamines. TAAR1 activation increases cAMP production via adenylyl cyclase activation and inhibits monoamine transporter function, inhibiting re-uptake of monoamines.
Increased cellular communication/neurotransmission of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, histamine, CART peptides, endogenous opioids, steroids and glutamate through interaction with CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), 5-HT1a, EAAT3, TAAR1, VMAT1, VMAT2 and other biological targets.
Bio availability up to 75% when taken orally, 15-40% of amphetamine circulating bloodstream is bound to plasma proteins. Half life between 9-14 hours. 90% of amphetamine is eliminated roughly 3 days after last oral dose.
Effects last 4-8 hours depending on dose.
Substance and dosage:
Powder, sometimes wet powder when fresh. Insufflated or taken orally in foils. Effects when insufflated start after several minutes. Orally up to 30 minutes. The same dose usually works stronger in women than in men. Burns when insufflated.
Loss of coordination, blurred vision, psychosis, seizures, stroke, coma, renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis. No antidote available, treatment through supportive care and treatment of symptoms. Benzodiazepines may be used to treat aggression/seizures. Beta-blockers may be used to relieve cardiac stress.